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The Federation Bungalow combines the simple qualities of the bungalow while frequently retaining the flair and idiosyncrisies of the Queen Anne style, although usually in simplified form.

The very popular uniquely Australian Federation Bungalow style

Bungalow style

The Bungalow was usually a single-storey house with a prominent verandah, especially with the roof covering the verandah.

"The bungalow house originated in the sub-continent, and fused many ideas and thoughts about the nature of housing and life styles during the period from 1913 to 1927. It reached a zenith in both style and popularity during the 1920s and carried well beyond 1930". (Donald Johnson - Australian Architecture 1901-51: Sources of Modernism)

The Bungalow style in Australia originated in California USA, while its name is derived from 'bangla', a Hindu term for the style 'belonging to Bengal'.

Our term 'verandah' is also derived from the Hindi 'varanda'. (Peter Cuffley)

"Low" describes the lower roof pitch than previous Federation styles.

Bungalow Characteristics
  1. A cottage, usually of one storey, often of four-square rooms, unless architecturally designed

  2. Having a sweeping low-pitched roof and low chimney(s)

  3. With a prominent verandah, or surrounded by a wide verandah, which at least extends along the width of the house

  4. Usually of timber construction, often with timber shingles

  5. The verandah columns are prominent, often on a stone or brick base

 

Bungalows in Australia 

"The developer Richard Stanton first introduced the American style bungalow to Sydney in 1906 and by 1912 this new type of compact servantless house was being erected across Sydney by speculative builders." - See "Haberfield, the Garden Suburb"
 

  • "The influence of the carefully crafted Californian Bungalows can be seen in the work of architects who had worked and travelled in America,

 

By 1915 the bungalow was being promoted as "the ideal home", in contrast to the terrace house form popular in the nineteenth century.

(e.g. "Bring Back Bungalows")

 

Federation Bungalows

  • Stylistically, the Federation Bungalow exploited the qualities of the bungalow while frequently retaining the flair and idiosyncrisies of the Queen Anne style, although usually in simplified form (see pictures at left)
     

The unique Australian Federation Bungalow style was the Australian response to the bungalow style that was developed in America by people like Gustav Stickley.

  • Gustav Stickley was a furniture manufacturer, design leader, publisher and the chief proselytizer for the American Craftsman style, an extension of the British Arts and Crafts movement. - Wikipedia

 

In the years immediately after World War I, the Australian variant of the bungalow emerged, a brick house with the characteristic series of low gables.

  • In country towns a different palette of materials were used, timber or timber combined with fibrous cement sheeting.

  • By the 1930s the popularity of the bungalow was declining."
    Scott Robertson, HHT 2012 talk

 

Examples of a Federation Bungalow:

 
 
 
 
 

Above and Right:

Fenton in Haberfield as it appears now

Fenton Federation Bungalow 52 Stanton Road Haberfield NSW

Both:  Federation Bungalows in 'Appian Way' Burwood, NSW

Both: Federation Bungalow Home, Appian Way, Burwood, Sydney

This guide courtesy City of Bayswater "Character Protection Area No 1"

Dominant Characteristics of Federation Bungalows

 

These examples of the Federation Bungalow style share the qualities of: 

  • single story buildings, with high ceilings, without a separate verandah gable

  • wide, without stucco masonry columns (characteristic of inter-war bungalow)

  • casement front windows,

  • chimneys

  • homely simplicity, robust honesty.

  • usually minimal timber detailing (except this filigree example!)

  • outdoor toilets and laundry


The Federation Bungalow style can be regarded as a transition between the Federation Queen Anne and the Inter-War California Bungalow

  • These bungalows lost the picturesque complexities of the Queen Anne style and

  • do not display their structural carpentry as much as the Californian Bungalow.

Features of Federation Bungalows


 1890-1915 Federation Bungalow houses have many of these features:
 

  • Single Storey, Ground Hugging,

  • Commodious verandahs

  • Use of ‘natural’ materials

  • Simple massing of forms

  • Traditional brick or stud-framed load bearing wall

  • Timber roof construction and detailing

  • Detailed high quality finishes within front rooms

  • Ceiling mouldings, Moulded architraves

  • Stucco detailing

  • Multi-paned and coloured casement or sliding sash windows

  • Gable ends ornamented with roughcast and battens painted in dark colours

  • Roofs covered with terracotta tiles

  • Turned timber or cast iron columns and balustrades

  • Roughcast walling

  • Masonary verandah piers, sandstone in the Sydney area, with turned timber verandah posts

 

The roof line (see below) is "hipped" with the narrow waisted peak characteristic of Federation Style.

 
 
 

Gallery

Federation bungalows in Australia often vary quite widely from one another in appearance, and below here are ten very different examples, showing

  1. Filigree,

  2. Simplicity, and

  3. Queen Anne styles.

1. Filigree Bungalows

  1. Bodiam, Harrow Road, Bexley, New South Wales, an example of a Queen Anne Bungalow

  2. Queensland Filigree Bungalow

  3. Edwardian style house in Heidelberg, Victoria - example of filigree bungalow​

 
 

2. Simple Bungalow Cottages

  1. Bungalow, Shaftsbury Road, Burwood

  2. Home, Appian Way, Burwood, New South Wales

  3. Another Home, Appian Way, Burwood, New South Wales

 

3. Queen Anne Bungalows

 

  1. Federation Bungalow Home, Appian Way, Burwood, NSW

  2. Arundel, Burwood Road, Burwood NSW

 

4. California Bungalows

Inter-War (Californian) Bungalow, Shaftsbury Road, Burwood 1915–1940 

This style can almost instantly be recognised by the masonry columns holding up a front verandah area. 

Right: Two California Bungalow Designs

Apperly, Richard E. (Richard Eric), 1925-1992.

Architecture, Domestic - Designs and plans.

Prepared for M. Arch. thesis - Faculty of Architecture, University of NSW 1972.

Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection

 

W.A. Heritage Guidelines for Federation Bungalows

City of Cockburn, W.A
 
Federation Bungalow

A Federation Style Home, Appian Way, Burwood, New South Wales