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Australian Heritage Defined

 
Heritage is a living part of our contemporary life.
  • The objects, buildings, stories, songs, and rituals become a framework and reference upon which we build the future.
     

  • Acknowledging our heritage can bring a richness to life, strengthening culture and our understanding of where we have all come from.
     

  • Heritage embraces the complexity of how we integrate and understand our present and our future with our living past.

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  • We should demonstrate a sophisticated understanding of heritage significance and encourage an innovative, creative, and sensitive design approach. [1]
     

  • Respect for our cultural heritage involves protecting places and objects that have importance to us as a community. Identifying and registering places and objects of cultural significance helps us to protect and conserve them. [5]
     

  • Heritage assessments are generally carried out by qualified and experienced professionals following the principles and process set out in the Burra Charter relating to the identification of values:
    aesthetic, historic, scientific, social and spiritual and relating them to a set of criteria.
     

  • In August 2008, the Heritage Council of Victoria adopted a set of criteria (last updated June 2014) to be used in assessing places for the Victorian Heritage Register. 

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The Burra Charter provides a nationally recognised framework for understanding and managing heritage places in Australia.

  • It outlines a logical process relevant to work on all existing buildings, sites, and precincts, and

  • states the principles and processes involved in heritage conservation,

  • including interpretation and the retention of connections between people and places.

  • The Burra Charter Process is founded on understanding the significance of the place and assessing changes that can be made while respecting that significance. [3]

The Burra Charter

The Burra Charter is the core doctrine for heritage conservation in Australia that was first adopted by Australia ICOMOS in 1979.

The Burra Charter produced by the Australian branch of the International Council on Monuments and Sites is internationally respected for providing some of the clearest guidance on the assessment and evaluation of heritage sites.

 

  • Australian heritage management events of this historical period have proven significant for local, regional and international conservation efforts in cities and beyond.
     

  • Other elements of Australian ‘best practice’, such as the Australian Heritage Commission Act 1975, are also to be envied in countries such as Britain where the problems attendant to a piecemeal system of heritage designation are increasingly debated.
     

  • With the Charter and the Act providing the cornerstones of conservation ideology in Australia, it comes as a surprise that policies and practices that have developed at State level have often been less than ideal in their content and application. [2]

 
 

Heritage in Victoria

 
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The Bangerang Cultural Centre, Shepparto

What places should be included in a Heritage Overlay?

 

  1. Any place that has been listed on the Australian Heritage Council’s now closed Register of the National Estate.
     

  2. Any place that has been referred by the Heritage Council for consideration for an amendment to the planning scheme.
     

  3. Places listed on the National Trust Heritage Register of the National Trust of Australia (Victoria), provided the significance of the place can be shown to justify the application of the overlay.
     

  4. Places identified in a local heritage study, provided the significance of the place can be shown to justify the application of the overlay.

  5. Places listed on the former Register of the National Estate or on the National Trust Heritage Register of the National Trust of Australia (Victoria) do not have statutory protection unless they are protected in the planning scheme.

 

The heritage process leading to the identification of the place needs to clearly justify the significance of the place as a basis for its inclusion in the Heritage Overlay.

The documentation for each place shall include a statement of significance

  • that clearly establishes the importance of the place and

  • addresses the heritage criteria. [4]

Register of the National Estate

 

Description

  • The Register of the National Estate was a heritage register that listed natural and cultural heritage places in Australia that was closed in 2007.

    • The Register of the National Estate was established under the Australian Heritage Commission Act 1975 as a list of important natural, Indigenous and historic heritage places.

    • Following amendments to the Australian Heritage Council Act 2003, no new places were added to or removed from the register.
       

  • It has been partly replaced by the Australian National Heritage List and the Commonwealth Heritage List and various state and territory heritage registers. 
     

  • The register ceased to be a statutory register in February 2012, but remains available as an archive.

    • The demise of the statutory role of the Register of the National Estate left some previously ‘registered’ places without any statutory status.

 

Opened: 1976

Replaced byAustralian National Heritage ListWikipedia

National Heritage List criteria

The National Heritage criteria against which the heritage values of a place are assessed are:

The place has outstanding heritage value to the nation because of the ...

  1. place's importance in the course, or pattern, of Australia's natural or cultural history

  2. place's possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Australia's natural or cultural history

  3. place's potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Australia's natural or cultural history

  4. place's importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of:

    1. a class of Australia's natural or cultural places; or

    2. a class of Australia's natural or cultural environments;

  5. place's importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics valued by a community or cultural group

  6. place's importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period

  7. place's strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons

  8. place's special association with the life or works of a person, or group of persons, of importance in Australia's natural or cultural history

  9. place's importance as part of Indigenous tradition.

Note: The cultural aspect of a criterion means the Indigenous cultural aspect, the non-Indigenous cultural aspect, or both.

What are recognised heritage criteria?

 

The following recognised heritage criteria shall be used for the assessment of the heritage value of the heritage place in Victoria.

These model criteria have been broadly adopted by heritage jurisdictions across Australia and should be used for all new heritage assessment work.

 

  • Criterion A: Importance to the course or pattern of our cultural or natural history (historical significance).

  • Criterion B: Possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of our cultural or natural history (rarity).

  • Criterion C: Potential to yield information that will contribute to understanding our cultural or natural history (research potential).

  • Criterion D: Importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a class of cultural or natural places or environments (representativeness).

  • Criterion E: Importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics (aesthetic significance).

  • Criterion F: Importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period (technical significance).

  • Criterion G: Strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons. This includes the significance of a place to Indigenous peoples as part of their continuing and developing cultural traditions (social significance).

  • Criterion H: Special association with the life or works of a person, or group of persons, of importance in our history (associative significance)

The thresholds to be applied in the assessment of significance shall be

  • State Significance’ and ‘Local Significance’.
     

Local Significance’ includes those places that are important to a particular community or locality.

Letter gradings (for example, “A’, “B’, “C’) should not be used.

 

To apply a threshold, some comparative analysis will be required to substantiate the significance of each place.

The comparative analysis should draw on other similar places within the study area, including those previously included in a heritage register or overlay.

Places identified to be of potential state significance should undergo analysis on a broader (statewide) comparative basis

 

Significant items located within a heritage conservation area contribute to and exemplify the heritage significance of the place. They are identified as heritage items and contributory items.

  • Heritage items means a building, work, place, relic, tree, object or archaeological site the location and nature of which is described in Schedule 5.

  • Contributory items are a building, work, archaeological site, tree or place and its setting, which contributes to the heritage significance of a conservation area. [8]

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Burra Charter cultural significance values

The Burra Charter describes the cultural significance of a place through five values, which a place may hold for past, present, or future generations.

  • It notes that each of these values may have tangible and intangible aspects and both must be acknowledged.

  • Aesthetic value refers to the sensory and perceptual experience of a place – that is, how we respond to visual and non-visual aspects such as

    • sounds, smells, and other factors having a strong impact on human thoughts, feelings, and attitudes. Aesthetic qualities may include the concept of beauty and formal aesthetic ideals.

  • Historic value is intended to encompass all aspects of history – for example, the history of aesthetics, art and architecture, science, spirituality, and society.

    • It therefore often underlies other values. A place may have historic value because it has influenced, or has been influenced by,

    • a historic event, phase, movement or activity, person or group of people.

    • It may be the site of an important event. For any place the significance will be greater where the evidence of the association or event survives at the place, or where the setting is substantially intact.

  • Scientific value refers to the information content of a place and its ability to reveal more about an aspect of the past through examination or investigation of the place, including the use of archaeological techniques.

  • Social value refers to the associations that a place has for a particular community or cultural group and the social or cultural meanings that it holds for them.

  • Spiritual value refers to the intangible values and meanings embodied in or evoked by a place which give it importance in the spiritual identity, or the traditional knowledge, art, and practices of a cultural group.

    • Spiritual value may also be reflected in the intensity of aesthetic and emotional responses or community associations, and be expressed through cultural practices and related places. (Practice Note: Understanding and assessing cultural significance, Australia ICOMOS 2013) [7]

Writing a statement of significance

 

For every heritage place (that is, a precinct or individual place) a statement of significance must be prepared using the format of

  1. ‘What is significant?’;

  2. ‘How is it significant?’ 

  3. ‘Why is it significant?’

 

1. What is significant? –

This section should be brief, usually no more than one paragraph or a series of dot points.

There should be no doubt about the elements of the place that are under discussion.

The paragraph should identify features or elements that are significant about the place, for example, house, outbuildings, garden, plantings, ruins, archaeological sites, interiors as a guide to future decision makers.

 

Clarification could also be made of elements that are not significant.

This may guide or provide the basis for an incorporated plan which identifies works that may be exempt from the need for a planning permit.

 

2. How is it significant? –

Using the heritage criteria above, a sentence should be included to the effect that the place is important.

This could be because of

  • its historical significance,

  • its rarity,

  • its research potential,

  • its representativeness,

  • its aesthetic significance,

  • its technical significance 

  • its social or 

  • its associative significance.

 

The sentence should indicate the threshold for which the place is considered important.

 

3. Why is it significant? –

The importance of the place needs to be justified against the heritage criteria listed above.

A separate point or paragraph should be used for each criterion satisfied.

The relevant criterion reference should be inserted in brackets after each point or paragraph, for example “(Criterion G)”.

The explanatory report for an amendment that includes a place in the Heritage Overlay (or other supporting documentation accompanying a planning scheme amendment) should:

  • state whether the place is a precinct or an individual place

  • identify if further controls allowed by the schedule to the overlay are required
    such as external paint controls or tree controls
    (the identification of further controls should be based on the explanation of why a heritage place is significant).

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Sweeney’s Cottage, Sweeney’s Lane, Eltham

A statement of significance is given below for Sweeney’s Cottage, Sweeney’s Lane, Eltham. Heritage Overlay number HO32.

 

What is significant?

Sweeney's Cottage, a cottage dating from 1858 (perhaps, as early as the 1840s), the barn, the pre-1850 Yellow Box tree (Eucalyptus Melliodora), the pre-1890 Pear tree (Pyrus Communis), the c1930 and c1950 Golden Ash trees (Fraximus Excelsior "Aurea"), the Lemon Scented Gum (Eucapyptus Citriodora) and the surrounding gardens (including the glasshouse) to the title boundaries.

How is it significant?

The cottage is historically significant to the Shire of Nillumbik. The barn, mature trees, and the surrounding gardens (including the glasshouse) are historically and aesthetically significant to the Shire of Nillumbik.

Why is it significant?

Sweeney's Cottage is historically significant because it is the Shire's oldest known privately-owned building. The cottage played a role in the earliest history of the Shire as the home of the convict, pioneer and civic leader Thomas Sweeney (and the Sweeney family of farmers) and as the site of the first meetings of the Catholic community in Eltham (Criteria A, B & H).

The surrounding gardens are historically and aesthetically significant because they were designed by two noted garden designers, Edna Walling and Ellis Stones (Criteria E & H).

Also because they form part of a significant farm and landscape setting, complete with orchard, windbreak, grazed paddocks, extended driveway, heated glasshouse, outbuildings and ornamental garden; this farmed landscape is a reminder of the area's past as a small farming community and is significant as the last landscape of its type in the Eltham township (Criteria A, B & E).

 

The mature trees identified are aesthetically significant as good examples of their species (Criterion E). [6]

 

A heritage place is any defined area that exhibits the heritage values outlined in this publication.

Places may include: 

buildings, structures, archaeological or historic sites, gardens, man-made parks, man-made landscapes, and trees or natural features that display these values.

 

Historic heritage places on statutory lists

Historic heritage places on statutory li
Local government listed places, by State
 
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Other Australian databases

 

The Australian Heritage Database shows detailed information about Western Australia's World Heritage Places, National Heritage Places, Commonwealth Heritage Places and overseas places of historic significance to Australia.

The Australian Heritage Places Inventory shows basic information about places in Western Australia that are listed in State, Territory and Commonwealth Heritage Registers and Lists.

This database includes all known shipwrecks in Australian waters. Features of the database include the capacity to attach images to shipwrecks, the ability to link shipwrecks to relics recovered from shipwreck sites, site environment information for divers and site managers and a history field with the ability to attach documents that include names of passengers and crew.

The Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety maintains the Geoheritage database. Geoheritage is about managing, preserving and protecting exceptional geological features. A geoheritage site has geological features considered to be unique and of outstanding scientific and educational value within Western Australia.

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W.A. State Heritage Register 

State Register of Heritage Places

The State Register of Heritage Places is a statutory list of places that represent the story of Western Australia’s history and development.

Places included in the State Register include buildings, structures, gardens, cemeteries, memorials, landscapes and archaeological sites.

  • Entry in the Register is reserved for places of State cultural heritage significance and is the highest recognition afforded at the State level. 

  • Heritage places are entered in the State Register after an assessment and registration process which includes extensive consultation with owners, local governments and other stakeholders.

  • For more information on the register, visit the nomination, assessment, registration and current consultations page.

  • To search the Register, visit inHerit.
     

Other heritage listing types

 

Cultural heritage places in Western Australia can be recorded under many different heritage listings.

Some of these listings give statutory protection to heritage places, and others are simply lists with unofficial or semi-official designations, often arising from local, community-based or thematic surveys.

 

Statutory listings are issued by government organisations such as

  • the Heritage Council,

  • the Australian Heritage Council

  • or local governments.

 

The listing types are:

 

Other lists that are common include

  • local heritage surveys (sometimes called Municipal Inventories), which are different to local heritage lists, and

  • lists of places classified by the National Trust.

Places that are entered in the State Register, or which are protected by another Heritage Council listing, have a pink coloured shading over the listing in the inHerit database search results.

inHerit

inHerit is a one-stop portal for information about heritage places and listings in Western Australia.

  • inHerit contains detailed information about cultural heritage places entered in the

  • State Register of Heritage Places,

  • local government inventories and other lists,

  • the Australian Government's heritage list,

  • and other non-government lists and surveys.

  • ACCESS INHERIT

 

Many local governments also use inHerit to record their local heritage listings, making this information easily searchable by the general public.  

If you represent a local government and would like further information on how to access inHerit to record your heritage data, please contact us

Useful publications

 
The Queensland Heritage Council

 

The Queensland Heritage Council (QHC) is an independent statutory authority and is comprised of 12 members who represent a wide range of professional and community sector interests.

The QHC is Queensland’s peak body on heritage matters and is responsible for providing advice to the Minister.

It decides whether to add a place to, or remove a place from, the Queensland Heritage Register. The department provides professional advice and administrative support to the QHC.

In 2016–17, the QHC met nine times in Brisbane and once in Rockhampton, as part of a regional visit in May 2017.

 

Queensland Heritage Register

 

The Queensland Heritage Register is a list of places that have cultural heritage significance to the people of Queensland.

Places entered in the register illustrate the key human endeavours that have determined Queensland’s economic development, as well as the fundamental political, social and cultural forces that have shaped society.

The QHC undertakes a rigorous assessment process for entry applications, ensuring that places entered in the register have state significance.

In 2016–17, there were 16 new State Heritage Places added to the register.

As at 30 June 2017, there were 1,741 places listed on the register, an increase of 1% from 2015–16. [11]

Queensland Heritage Guidelines

Criteria for inclusion in the Heritage overlay
  1. Premises can be included in the Heritage overlay in the Local heritage place sub-category if it meets one or more of the following cultural heritage values:

a) it is important in demonstrating the evolution or pattern of the city’s or local area’s history;

b) it demonstrates rare, uncommon or endangered aspects of the city’s or local area’s cultural heritage;

c) it has potential to yield information that will contribute to the knowledge and understanding of the city’s or local area’s history;

d) it is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class or classes of cultural places;

e) it is important because of its aesthetic significance;

f) it is important in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technological achievement at a particular period;

g) it has a strong or special association with the life or work of a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons;

h) it has a special association with the life or work of a particular person, group or organisation of importance in the city’s or local area’s history;

​2. When a citation is prepared documenting these cultural heritage values, it is to include:

a) a description of the local heritage place;

b) a statement of the history of the local heritage place;

c) a statement of the cultural heritage significance of the local heritage place.

3. A citation may not have been prepared prior to including the premises in the Heritage overlay.

The Council will prepare a heritage citation when a development application is lodged on the site of a local heritage place to assist in assessing the proposal against the Heritage overlay code.

This may demonstrate that the site is not worthy of retention as a local heritage place. The Council may then initiate the process of removing the site from the Heritage overlay.

4. A site adjoining a local heritage place or State heritage place is also included on the Heritage overlay in the Area adjoining local heritage sub-category or in the Area adjoining the State heritage sub-category, to enable the Heritage overlay code to apply to development on these adjoining sites. [10]

 

Heritage and development

 

In eastern and western mainland Australia, each Local Council has a local environmental plan (LEP) which

  • is a legal document prepared by Council 

  • and approved by the State Government

    • to regulate land use and development and which

    • contains heritage provisions 

    • which outline when development consent is required in relation to work carried out to heritage items and properties within a heritage conservation area (HCA)
      Planning - Know Your Council.

South Australian Heritage Changes

 

In South Australia, The Planning and Design Code (the Code) is the cornerstone of South Australia’s new planning system, and will offer a single set of planning policies (‘rules’) for assessing development applications across the state.

  • The Code will replace all of the individual planning policies held by councils (called Development Plans) by mid-2020.

  • Instead of Local Councils maintaining a record of their own State Heritage Places, these will now be accurately mapped in the state-wide Planning and Design Code (the Code) and the State Atlas.

State Heritage Places

Although any proposal to alter or demolish a State Heritage Place will continue to be referred to the Heritage Minister, the Minister will now have greater authority to direct decision-making

Local Heritage Places 

Local Heritage Places are structures or buildings that demonstrate important local historical attributes or contribute to the historical themes of a local area.

Demolition of a Local Heritage Place will only be considered if the place in question has little heritage value, is structurally unsound or is economically unviable. Before demolition can take place, an assessment of heritage value will be undertaken.

Historic Conservation Zones

Historic Conservation Zones are local areas that exhibit discernible historic character that is worthy of retention for present and future generations.

Any proposal to alter or demolish a building within an Historic Conservation Zone (which will become known as a Local Heritage Area)

  • will be assessed by the planning authority alongside a single set of criteria which will consider

    • the building’s existing heritage values,

    • the extent to which these values are mirrored in other neighbourhoods, and

    • the nature of the replacement building.

​Contributory Items

Contributory Items are specific examples of built form that represent a particular historical period and/or architectural character.

 

Contributory Items typically exist within Historic Conservation Zones, but they themselves have no set criteria and are not recognised.

In the future, any proposal to alter or demolish a former Contributory Item will be assessed by the local council according to the new Local Heritage Areas policy.

 

As part of this assessment, the council will consider

  • the item’s existing heritage values,

  • the extent to which these values are mirrored in other neighbourhoods,

  • and the nature of any replacement development. [9]

 
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Tasmanian Heritage Changes

(for the worst)

"A Tourism Master Plan has been identified by the international World Heritage Committee as a way to ‘refine the balance’ between tourism and conservation.

However, the overarching Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA) Management Plan has already been changed (in 2016) to allow statutory approval of controversial tourism developments already passed through the Government’s Expression of Interest process, even though they would destroy wilderness values.

  • To date, nine separate proposals involving over twenty-six new, private commercial tourism accommodation developments have been approved via the EOI process

  • and many of these had specific changes incorporated into the TWWHA (Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area) Management Plan.

  • This includes a second set of Overland Track huts, the Lake Malbena huts, the South Coast Track huts, the South East Cape hut and the lodge at Lake Rodway near Cradle Mountain." [13]

"Unfortunately there is little to suggest that the Tourism Master Plan will achieve the IUCN Reactive Monitoring Mission (RMM)’s intention of counterbalancing the influence of the tourism industry over development in our national parks.

 

(TAS) PARKS ‘MISREPRESENTS’ ENVIRONMENTAL PIONEERS

A glossy government brochure quoting two pioneering conservationists is promoting the destruction of wilderness, their widows say.

"The Government’s development agenda and weakened management prescriptions are the exact opposite of that work and the antithesis to Olegas’ and Peter’s statements."

Actual quote by Olegas:

“Is there any reason why Tasmania should not be more beautiful on the day we leave it, than on the day we came?…

  • If we can revise our attitudes towards the land under our feet;

  • if we can accept a role of steward and depart from the role of the conqueror,

  • if we can accept that man and nature are inseparable parts of the unified whole,

then Tasmania can be a shining beacon in a dull, uniform and largely artificial world.” [13]

 
Olegas Truchanas 'misrepresented'
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Comment by Vica Bayley
@VicaBayley:

"The Tasmanian (Liberal) government is seeking to attract tourism developments in national parks and other public land.

The Wilderness Society says 10 shortlisted projects, including the Halls Island proposal, are in the world heritage area, and its Tasmanian campaign manager Vica Bayley said the federal government’s ruling “speaks to the utter failure of our laws to protect these values”.

 

“[The federal government] have clearly run such a low bar assessment ... and waved it through as not even needing approval.

Its gobsmacking in its negligence,” he said.

“This is happening from the Queensland Great Barrier Reef all the way down to Tasmania’s wilderness.”

"The UNESCO World Heritage Committee earlier this year expressed concern at the Tasmanian government’s rezoning of some wilderness areas as “recreation” to allow more tourism and aircraft access.

It said little progress had been made on a tourism master plan to guide development.

Wilderness Society Tasmanian campaign manager Vica Bayley said the federal government ruling showed Commonwealth laws were failing the environment. "[12]

The deplorable and sickening rape of Heritage

By Editor, The Tasmanian Times, Posted on May 4, 2015

 

Heritage Listing in this state does need an overhaul but Heritage Tasmania must be careful not to throw the baby out with the bathwater just to please a few bureaucrats.

They do need to ensure greater clarity, consistency and certainty for property owners, developers and local government but what weighting will be given to the keeping of built heritage to please these various masters.

  • Now that the sitting Liberal government has appointed a developer as chairwoman of the Tasmanian Heritage Council, they are becoming bolder in ‘thumbing their noses’ at proper due process in the safeguarding of all of Tasmania’s unique heritage.

 

Heritage should be developed as a major tourist attraction.

Instead, they are paying lip service to it.

  • It seems to me Liberals would rather hand out public land to favoured mates to pillage and rape the island with modern developments … rather than build on an asset we already have.

Who says we want their limited and self-serving vision for the future. It is all deplorable and sickening. [14]

Address on Tasmanian Heritage and the Supreme Court:

"The heritage significance of a place remains a very important consideration for the Tasmanian Heritage Council to take into account. 

  • Similarly, councils will still have to take the heritage significance of places into account when making decisions in relation to planning permits. 

  • One of the items required to be taken into account in the list of “objectives of the planning process” set out in Schedule 1 to the Land Use Planning and Approvals Act 1993 is:

“(g)  to conserve those buildings, areas or other places which are of scientific, aesthetic, architectural or historical interest, or otherwise of special cultural value”.

Address to the Australasian Conference of Planning and Environment Courts and Tribunals by the Hon Justice Alan Blow, Chief Justice of Tasmania, on 5 March 2014 [15]

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References

[1], [3] The Design Guide for Heritage - advice to guide a broad range of design work in heritage places in NSW.

[2] Revising the Burra Charter: Australia ICOMOS updates its guidelines for conservation practice, Marilyn Truscott & David Young

[4] Victorian Planning Practice Note 1 - Applying the Heritage Overlay AUGUST 2018

[5] VIC Heritage Protection Explained 

[6] VHD - SWEENEYS LANE ELTHAM, NILLUMBIK SHIRE

[7] Design Guide for Heritage - Government Architect NSW

[8] Woollahra Municipal Council - Heritage Information

[9] SA Community Guide to Heritage & Character in the New Planning System

[10] Queensland SC6.13 Heritage planning scheme policy

[11] Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Annual Report 2016-2017

[12] Government waved through development in World Heritage area despite objections from its own advisers - Nicole Hasham - November 26, 2018

[13] Don’t Misquote Truchanas & Dombrovskis, By Chief Editor Tasmanian Times - Posted on December 17, 2019

[14] The deplorable and sickening rape of Heritage - Tasmanian Times

[15] Planning Legislation in Tasmania - (Address to the Australasian Conference of Planning and Environment Courts and Tribunals by the Hon Justice Alan Blow, Chief Justice of Tasmania, on 5 March 2014)

[16] Tourism Master Plan for Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area commenced - The Tasmanian National Parks Association Inc (TNPA) - December 31st, 2018